See also the Medical Glossary.
Human anatomy, is a basic medical science that is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the adult human body.
The human body consists of biological systems, that consist of organs, that consist of tissues, that consist of cells and connective tissue. The history of anatomy has been characterized, over a long period of time, by a continually developing understanding of the functions of organs and structures in the body. Methods have also advanced dramatically, advancing from examination of animals through dissection of preserved cadavers (dead human bodies) to technologically complex techniques developed in the 20th century.
- Head and neck — includes everything above the thoracic inlet. (shoulder blades upwards)
- Upper limbs — includes the hand, wrist, forearm, elbow, arm, and shoulder.
- Thorax — the region of the chest from the thoracic inlet to the thoracic diaphragm. ("the chest")
- Abdomen - abdomen to the pelvic brim or to the pelvic inlet. ("the belly")
- Back — the spine and its components, the vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx, and intervertebral disks.
- Pelvis and Perineum — the pelvis consists of everything from the pelvic inlet to the pelvic diaphragm. The perineum is the region between the sex organs and the anus.
- Lower limbs — everything below the inguinal ligament, including the hip, the thigh, the knee, the leg, the ankle, and the foot.
Superficial anatomy or surface anatomy is important in human anatomy being the study of anatomical landmarks that can be readily identified from the contours or other reference points on the surface of the body. With knowledge of superficial anatomy, physicians gauge the position and anatomy of the associated deeper structures.
Common names of well known parts of the human body, from top to bottom:
- Head — Forehead — Jaw — Cheek — Chin
- Neck — Shoulders
- Arm — Elbow — Wrist — Hand — Fingers — Thumb
- Spine — Chest — Ribcage
- Abdomen — Groin
- Hip — Buttocks — Leg — Thigh — Knee — Calf — Heel — Ankle — Foot — Toes
- The eye, ear, nose, mouth, teeth, tongue, throat, adam's apple, breast, penis, scrotum, clitoris, vulva, navel are visible too.
Major organ systemsEdit
- Circulatory System: pumping and channelling blood to and from the body and lungs with heart, blood, and blood vessels.
- Digestive System: digestion and processing food with salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, intestines, rectum, and anus.
- Endocrine System: communication within the body using hormones made by endocrine glands such as the hypothalamus, pituitary or pituitary gland, pineal body or pineal gland, thyroid, parathyroids, and adrenals or adrenal glands
- Integumentary System: skin, hair, and nails
- Lymphatic System: structures involved in the transfer of lymph between tissues and the blood stream, the lymph and the nodes and vessels that transport it including the Immune system: defending against disease-causing agents with leukocytes, tonsils, adenoids, thymus, and spleen
- Musculoskeletal System: movement with muscles and human skeleton (structural support and protection with bones, cartilage, ligaments, and tendons).
- Nervous System: collecting, transferring and processing information with brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and nerves
- Reproductive System: the sex organs; in the female; ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, mammary glands, and in the male; testes, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate, and penis.
- Respiratory System: the organs used for breathing, the pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, and diaphragm.
- Urinary System: kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra involved in fluid balance, electrolyte balance and excretion of urine.
Common names of internal organs (in alphabetical order) :
Adrenal - Appendix — Bladder - Brain — Eye - Gall bladder - Heart - Intestine - Kidney - Liver - Lung - Esophagus - Ovaries - Pancreas - Parathyroids - Pituitary - Prostate - Spleen - Stomach - Testicle - Thymus - Thyroid - Uterus - Veins
Amygdala — Brain Stem — Cerebellum — Cerebral Cortex — Limbic System — Medulla - Midbrain - Pons
- "Anatomy of the Human Body". 20th edition. 1918. Henry Gray. In public domain.
- Anatomy Dissection videos
- e-Anatomy - Interactive atlas of whole human body cross-sectional anatomy.
- Anatomy Lab - Interactive quizzes, question-of-the-week, and photographs.
- The Anatomy Wiz - An Interactive Cross-Sectional Anatomy Index
- RAAViewer - Computer based atlas of human anatomy: entire body in cross-section
- Free online accessible 3D model of the human body
- Anatowiki Interactive anatomy website
- Anatomy Mnemonics Mnemonics in Human Anatomy.